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Table 1 Literature review from 2005 to 2015. characterization of acute myeloid leukemia associated to spinal cord compression

From: Epidural spinal cord compression as initial clinical presentation of an acute myeloid leukaemia: case report and literature review

Nb References Sex/age (years) Cytogenetic Histology and immunohistochemistry Localization signs MR Imaging Laboratory findings Delay and diagnosis treatement and outcome
1 Meltzer et al. 2005 [3] M/10 - -Myeloblastic Acute myeloid leukemia
-Chloroma
T2-T6 -Midback pain
-weight loss
-decreased sensation to vibration and light touch over the left leg
-decreased sensation to pain and temperature in the right leg
-paravertebral lesions with spinal
-posterior epidural and prevertebral mass
WBC 12,800/mm3, HB 9.4 g/dl, platelet 74,800/mm3.
-lactate dehydrogenase was 570 IU/l,
-immature cells
-3 weeks
-Laminectomie + Chemotherapy + spinal radiation
-Total Neurological improvement after 6 month
-well more than 18 months of therapy
2 Ghalaut et al. 2005. [4] 23/M - Granulocytic sarcoma due to acute myeloid leukemia T4-T6 -Backache
-numbness of bilateral legs-sensory loss up to mid thoracic region anemia
-Epidural mass extending from T4-T6 with marrow signal alteration involving T1 and T5 to T7 - - surgical excision + chemotherapy
-neurological improvement
3 Amalraj et al. 2009 [5] 14/M - Granulocytic sarcoma promyelocytic leukemia AML M3 T3-T10 -Acute paraplegia
-weakness of both lower limbs
-numbness of both lower limbs
-back pain for the last
-bladder symptoms
hypointense in T1 hyperintense in T2 dorsally compressing the spinal cord Hemoglobin 13 gm%, total count 8,400, polymorph 60 %, and lymph 40 %, with high erythrocyte. -paraplegia improved with radiotherapy and chemotherapy
RBC mild hypochromic microcytic, WBC count normal predominantly blast cells with high nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, moderate cytoplasm, hyperchromatic nuclei with multiple nucleoli, platelet count decreased.
4 Olcay et al. 2009 [6] M/12 Cytogenetic evaluation could not be done. acute myeloblastic leukemia Lumbar (L3) -Conus medullaris
-left maxillary mass
-Conus medullaris syndrome Cauda equine nerve roots were thickened and clumped in the left anterolateral side of the spinal canal. Hb:8 g/dL -Chemotherapy + triple intratecal therapy
-Radiotherapy
-Symptom partially resolved died because of pneumonia and disseminated intravascular coagulation
CD45:95.15 %, CD15: 35.56 %, CD33:77.57 %, CD117:79.3 %, CD34:43.38 %, CD13:29.32 %. WBC : 7.4 × 109/mm3
Thrombocyte:60.109/mm3
Lactate dehydrogenase: 691 U/l
HLA-DR:86, 4 %, CDw65:23.9 %, CD19:49.54 % CD20:21.65 %, CD14:3.14 %.
5 Yin et al. 2010 [7] 28/M - myeloid sarcoma with acute myeloid leukemia T12-L1 -low back pain
-numbness of his legs
-bladder
-incontinence
-hypoesthesia below T12 paraparesis
-Posterior epidural mass T12-L1 White blood cell 3,900/mm3
- hemoglobin :11.0 g/dL
-hematocrit of 38.2 %.
High-dose methylprednisolone
-Decompression with T12-L1 laminectomy and tumor resection.
CD68, CD45, CD43, CD117 and lysozyme but not of MPO, CD20
Paraparesis Improvement
- anti-AML therapy, but died of sepsis
7 Bittencourt et al. 2011 [8] 53/M t(15;17)(q22q21) abnormality -Acute promyelocytic leukemia presenting as extradural mass
-PCR for the PML-RARα gene was positive
T6-T8 -Progressive fatigue, pain legs weakness Paraparesis
- Gingival hemorrhage, hepatomegaly
Posterolateral extradural mass from T6-T8 with medullar compression Hb:10,6 g/dl-1 delais4 months/chemotherapy (daunorubicin) + radiotherapy/Evolution: no neurologic improvement + died of sepsis
WBC: 7,5.109/L-1
Platelet:12.109/l-1
Fibrinogen:1.4 g/L-1
INR: 1.86 (N:0,8-1,2)
Uric acid and lactate dehydrogenase were both elevated
8 Kyaw et al. 2012 [9] 26/M - -Myeloid sarcoma: acute promyelocytic leukemia
-CD33, CD117, CD64, CD34 and cytoplasmic MPO were presented Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed BCR1-type PML-RARα fusion copies
T2-T4 and T12 – L2 Progressive back pain and bilateral leg weakness: -paraparesis Loss of pain and sensory perception Multiple hyperintense T12,L1,L2, L4 and L5 vertebral bodies and sacrum Hb:10,7 g/dL-1 -Radiotherapy
-Chemotherapy: retinoic acid + ida rubicin
-Neurological improvement -Good remission
WBC:2,8.109/L-1
Platelet : 102.109/L-1
Intraspinal extradural masses L4 and L5 vertebral bodies and sacrum
Intraspinal extradural masses located fromT2 toT4 and T12 to L2.
9 Ben et al. 2013 [10] 21/M karyotype: 46, XY, t (8, 21) (q22; q22) / 46, XY chloroma
CD3, CD20 = -
-positive for myeloperoxidase
acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML) of the French-American-British M2 subtype
T4/ T7, T1-T2 Progressive paraplegia. urinary retention intermediate in T1, hyperintense in T2 hemoglobin 8 g/dL-1, white blood cell count 3100/mm3, platelet count 44000/mm3 and 3 % neutrophils, 44 % lymphocytes and 44 % . laminectomy + tumour was totally removed
-rubidomycine (45 mg/m2 daily for 3 days) and cytosine arabinoside (200 mg/m2 continuous infusion for 7 days).
-improvement paraplegia
- complete remission
10 Krishnamurthy et al. 2014 [11] 16 /M - Granulocytic sarcoma associated with leukaemia,
- acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML) of the French-American-British M2 subtype.
-subleukemic leukemia
  Low backaches follow proptosis, spinal cord causing significant compression of the spinal cord. Multiple midline fusiform extra-dural masses which are iso- intense to cord on T1W images seen extending from C3- C7, D3-D5, D11-D12 & S1-S2 are seen posteriorly Hb : 7.2 g/dl, 3 RBC 2.5 million/mm3,TC : 11200 cells/mm3, with a differential ount of N 41 %, L-28 %, E-01 %, M-30 %, 3ESR 120 mm/hr, Platelet count: 51,000/mm3, PT/INR –
- dimorphic anemia, thrombocytopenia and myeloblasts
-radiotherapy and chemotherapy
11 Present case. 17/M -Cytogenetic evaluation could not be done. -Myeloid leukemia
- type 2 leukemia
T4T9 Acute paraplegia hypointense lesion on T1 weighted sequence isointense T2 weighted sequence enhanced on T1 with gadolinium. (epidural mass (hyperintense) blood count revealed leucocytosis with a major white blood cell count 200,000 / mm3, with 77 % blasts, hemoglobin: 10.9 g dl; platelet count: 106 × 109 L-1 -Chemotherapy
-Died one week after diagnosis
  1. Literature review from 2005 to 2015. characterization of acute myeloid leukemia associated to spinal cord compression
  2. N b: Number