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Table 1 Association of Potential Predictors with Unfavorable Hemorrhage-free Survival before Treatmenta

From: Pediatric brain arteriovenous malformation unfavorable hemorrhage risk: extrapolation to a morphologic model

Characteristic Univariable Cox Proportional Hazards (n = 162) Multivariable Cox Proportional Hazardsb (n = 162)
HR 95%CI P value HR 95%CI P value
Periventricular location 2.88 1.41–5.89 0.004 4.46 1.93–10.31 < 0.001
Non-temporal lobe location 2.26 1.04–4.90 0.039 2.72 1.20–6.15 0.016
Long pial draining vein 1.75 0.93–3.28 0.083 3.26 1.53–6.97 0.002
Maximal AVM size (mm) 0.99 0.98–1.01 0.484 0.99 0.97–1.01 0.213
Gender, male 0.83 0.44–1.54 0.546 0.90 0.44–1.84 0.778
Deep location 1.32 0.71–2.45 0.377 0.78 0.35–1.76 0.553
Posterior fossa location 1.28 0.39–4.17 0.682 2.01 0.51–7.96 0.323
Eloquence 0.79 0.43–1.47 0.456 0.68 0.34–1.38 0.286
Exclusively deep venous drainage 1.72 0.72–4.09 0.220 2.80 1.01–7.79 0.048
Associated aneurysm 2.05 0.80–5.28 0.137 1.63 0.55–4.86 0.377
  1. aP value in boldface indicates statistical significance
  2. bAdjusted for gender, deep location, infratentorial location, eloquence, associated aneurysm, maximal nidus size