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Table 1 Gertzbein-Robbin assessment of pedicle screw placement

From: Pedicle screw accuracy assessment in ExcelsiusGPS® robotic spine surgery: evaluation of deviation from pre-planned trajectory

Number of Screws Instrumented (N)

Screw Violation

Gertzbein Robbins Grade

Case 1

N = 4

4/4 screws without violation

4/4 screws Grade A

Case 2

N = 4

3/4 screws without violation

3/4 screws Grade A

1/4 screw with lateral cortical violation

1/4 screw Grade B