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Table 1 Gertzbein-Robbin assessment of pedicle screw placement

From: Pedicle screw accuracy assessment in ExcelsiusGPS® robotic spine surgery: evaluation of deviation from pre-planned trajectory

Number of Screws Instrumented (N) Screw Violation Gertzbein Robbins Grade
Case 1
N = 4 4/4 screws without violation 4/4 screws Grade A
Case 2
N = 4 3/4 screws without violation 3/4 screws Grade A
1/4 screw with lateral cortical violation 1/4 screw Grade B