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Table 2 Deviation assessment of robotic-assisted screw placement compared to pre-operative planned trajectory

From: Pedicle screw accuracy assessment in ExcelsiusGPS® robotic spine surgery: evaluation of deviation from pre-planned trajectory

  Tip distance (mm) Tail distance (mm) Angular offset (degrees)
Case 1
 Left L4 0.9 2.4 2.3
 Right L4 1.9 3.1 3.8
 Left L5 0.8 3.1 2.9
 Right L5 1.6 3.8 3.0
Case 2
 Left L4 5.2 5.4 1.8
 Right L4 1.5 0.9 0.7
 Left L5 2.9 2.9 1.8
 Right L5 2.1 3.8 2.8
Average 2.1 mm 3.2 mm 2.4 degrees