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Table 1 Comparison among nTMS, DES, and fMRI

From: Current status and potential application of navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation in neurosurgery: a literature review

  nTMS DES fMRI
Safety issue Safe, noninvasive Invasive Safe, noninvasive
Accuracy High accuracy Gold standard for mapping of motor and language Accuracy is affected by patient’s cooperation
Less reliable for motor mapping in patients with brain tumor
Maneuverability Simple
Do not need patient’s cooperation
Complex Require complex post-processing analysis
Need patient’s cooperation
Expenses Low High Low
Level of comfort Well tolerated in motor mapping
A little uncomfortable in language mapping
Invasive Comfortable but can not be applied to claustrophobic patients