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Table 1 Review of treatments and outcomes in studies using animal models for surgical brain injury

From: Surgically-induced brain injury: where are we now?

Matchett et al. 2006 [33]RatErythropoietin pre-treatmentIncreased brain water content (BWC)
Lo et al. 2007 [46]MouseNADPH oxidase knockout (KO) or apocynin pre-treatmentKO: increased neurological score (NS); apocynin: no effect
Jadhav et al. 2007 [35]RatPP1 pre-treatmentDecreased BWC, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), p-ERK1/2; increased zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1)
Yamaguchi et al. 2007 [34]RatMMP inhibitor-1 preconditioningDecreased BWC
Lee et al. 2008 [47]RatSimvastin pre-treatmentNo effect
Lee et al. 2008 [48]RatMelatonin pre-treatment5 and 15 mg/kg decreased lipid peroxidation (LPO), BWC; increased NS. 150 mg/kg decreased NS; increased BWC & LPO
Bravo et al. 2008 [49]MouseL-histadine and thioperamide post-treatmentIncreased BWC
Hyong et al. 2008 [7]RatRosiglitazone pre-treatmentDecreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, Tumor Necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β)
Di et al. 2008 [50]RatAminoguanidine post-treatmentDecreased BWC, TNF-α, NF-κB; increased NS
Hao et al. 2009 [51]RatAminoguanidine post-treatmentDecreased malondialdehyde (MDA), aquaporin-4 (AQ-4); increased glutathione (GSH)
Jadhav et al. 2009 [52]MouseHyperbaric oxygen preconditioningDecreased BWC, cyclooxgenaase-2 (COX-2), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1A); increased NS
Westra et al. 2011 [53]CD1 MiceHyperbaric (2.5 ATM) and normobaric oxygen (100% FiO2) pre-treatmentDecreased NS; increased BWC
Khatibi et al. 2011 [54]CD57 MiceGranulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF) preconditioning and post-treatmentPreconditioning decreased cell death, BWC; post-treatment increased NS
Khatibi et al. 2011 [55]CD57 MiceProstaglandin E2 EP1 receptor antagonist pre-treatmentNo effect on BWC or cell death; increased NS
Jafarian et al. 2011 [56]CD57 MiceMyelin basic protein (MBP) pre-treatmentPreserved transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1); increased NS
Ayer et al. 2012 [8]CD57 MiceMyelin basic protein (MBP) pre-treatmentDecreased BWC, IL-1β; increased NS, TGFβ1
Eckermann et al. 2011 [57]Rat2.9 percent hydrogen concurrent with surgeryDecreased BWC; increased NS
Benggon et al. 2012 [58]RatDexmedetomidine pre-treatmentNo effect
Manaenko et al. 2013 [59]RatPAR-1 antagonist SCH79797 pre-treatmentDecreased BWC, cellular apoptosis
Zheng et al. 2014 [60]RabbitThymus tolerance pre-treatmentDecreased IL-1
Xu et al. 2014 [61]RatDexamethasone vs. progesterone pre-treatmentProgesterone decreased BWC and MMP-9 expression
Huang et al. 2014 [62]RatCollagen-glycosaminoglycan matrix implantationIncreased VEGF, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
Huang et al. 2015 [63]RatPI3Kγ inhibitors AS252424 and AS605240 pre-treatmentDecreased BWC; increased NS
Huang et al. 2016 [64]RatValproic acid pre-treatmentDecreased BWC; no MMP inhibition; no effect on NS
Komanapalli et al. 2016 [65]RatEpsilon aminocaproic acid pre-treatmentDecreased BWC; increased NS
Pakkianathan et al. 2016 [66]RatPropofol pre-treatmentNo effect on BWC or NS
Sherchan et al. 2016 [38]RatRecombinant Slit2 pre-treatmentDecreased BWC, CD45 antigen, myeloperoxidase, cell division cycle protein 42 (Cdc42); increased NS
Yang et al. 2016 [42]RatAllogenic myelin basic (MB) protein vs. autogenic brain cell suspension pre-treatmentSuppressed secondary inflammatory reactions
Kim et al. 2017 [44]RatCrotalus atrox whole venom preconditioningDecreased intraoperative hemorrhage, postoperative hematoma
Kim et al. 2017 [45]RatCrotalus helleri whole venom preconditioningDecreased BWC and COX-2 over-expression; increased NS
Sherchan et al. 2017 [37]RatRecombinant Slit2 pre-treatmentDecreased BBB permeability; increased BBB junction proteins, NS
Wang et al. 2017 [67]RatNaja sputatrix whole venom preconditioningDecreased pro-inflammatory mediators; increased NS
Wang et al. 2018 [68]RatPLA2 preconditioningDecreased BWC, intraoperative bleeding; increased NS
Xiao et al. 2018 [69]RatMilk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-8 (MFGE8) pre-treatmentDecreased BWC, apoptotic cells; increased NS
Akyol et al. 2018 [70]RatNeurotrophin-3 intraoperativeDecreased BWC, BBB permeability; increased NS
Chen et al. 2019 [71]RatCollagen-glycosaminoglycan (CG) matrix post-treatmentDecreased ED-1, IBA-1, MPO, TNF-α, IL-6, NF-κB; increased GMCSF, IL-10
Hsu et al. 2018 [72]RatCollagen-glycosaminoglycan (GC) matrix post-treatmentIncreased MMP2, MMP9
Zakhary et al. 2019 [41]RatRO 61-8048 (kynurenine inhibitor) post-treatmentDecreased BWC, increased NS