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Table 1 Review of treatments and outcomes in studies using animal models for surgical brain injury

From: Surgically-induced brain injury: where are we now?

Reference Model Treatment Outcomes
Matchett et al. 2006 [33] Rat Erythropoietin pre-treatment Increased brain water content (BWC)
Lo et al. 2007 [46] Mouse NADPH oxidase knockout (KO) or apocynin pre-treatment KO: increased neurological score (NS); apocynin: no effect
Jadhav et al. 2007 [35] Rat PP1 pre-treatment Decreased BWC, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), p-ERK1/2; increased zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1)
Yamaguchi et al. 2007 [34] Rat MMP inhibitor-1 preconditioning Decreased BWC
Lee et al. 2008 [47] Rat Simvastin pre-treatment No effect
Lee et al. 2008 [48] Rat Melatonin pre-treatment 5 and 15 mg/kg decreased lipid peroxidation (LPO), BWC; increased NS. 150 mg/kg decreased NS; increased BWC & LPO
Bravo et al. 2008 [49] Mouse L-histadine and thioperamide post-treatment Increased BWC
Hyong et al. 2008 [7] Rat Rosiglitazone pre-treatment Decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, Tumor Necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β)
Di et al. 2008 [50] Rat Aminoguanidine post-treatment Decreased BWC, TNF-α, NF-κB; increased NS
Hao et al. 2009 [51] Rat Aminoguanidine post-treatment Decreased malondialdehyde (MDA), aquaporin-4 (AQ-4); increased glutathione (GSH)
Jadhav et al. 2009 [52] Mouse Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning Decreased BWC, cyclooxgenaase-2 (COX-2), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1A); increased NS
Westra et al. 2011 [53] CD1 Mice Hyperbaric (2.5 ATM) and normobaric oxygen (100% FiO2) pre-treatment Decreased NS; increased BWC
Khatibi et al. 2011 [54] CD57 Mice Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF) preconditioning and post-treatment Preconditioning decreased cell death, BWC; post-treatment increased NS
Khatibi et al. 2011 [55] CD57 Mice Prostaglandin E2 EP1 receptor antagonist pre-treatment No effect on BWC or cell death; increased NS
Jafarian et al. 2011 [56] CD57 Mice Myelin basic protein (MBP) pre-treatment Preserved transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1); increased NS
Ayer et al. 2012 [8] CD57 Mice Myelin basic protein (MBP) pre-treatment Decreased BWC, IL-1β; increased NS, TGFβ1
Eckermann et al. 2011 [57] Rat 2.9 percent hydrogen concurrent with surgery Decreased BWC; increased NS
Benggon et al. 2012 [58] Rat Dexmedetomidine pre-treatment No effect
Manaenko et al. 2013 [59] Rat PAR-1 antagonist SCH79797 pre-treatment Decreased BWC, cellular apoptosis
Zheng et al. 2014 [60] Rabbit Thymus tolerance pre-treatment Decreased IL-1
Xu et al. 2014 [61] Rat Dexamethasone vs. progesterone pre-treatment Progesterone decreased BWC and MMP-9 expression
Huang et al. 2014 [62] Rat Collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrix implantation Increased VEGF, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
Huang et al. 2015 [63] Rat PI3Kγ inhibitors AS252424 and AS605240 pre-treatment Decreased BWC; increased NS
Huang et al. 2016 [64] Rat Valproic acid pre-treatment Decreased BWC; no MMP inhibition; no effect on NS
Komanapalli et al. 2016 [65] Rat Epsilon aminocaproic acid pre-treatment Decreased BWC; increased NS
Pakkianathan et al. 2016 [66] Rat Propofol pre-treatment No effect on BWC or NS
Sherchan et al. 2016 [38] Rat Recombinant Slit2 pre-treatment Decreased BWC, CD45 antigen, myeloperoxidase, cell division cycle protein 42 (Cdc42); increased NS
Yang et al. 2016 [42] Rat Allogenic myelin basic (MB) protein vs. autogenic brain cell suspension pre-treatment Suppressed secondary inflammatory reactions
Kim et al. 2017 [44] Rat Crotalus atrox whole venom preconditioning Decreased intraoperative hemorrhage, postoperative hematoma
Kim et al. 2017 [45] Rat Crotalus helleri whole venom preconditioning Decreased BWC and COX-2 over-expression; increased NS
Sherchan et al. 2017 [37] Rat Recombinant Slit2 pre-treatment Decreased BBB permeability; increased BBB junction proteins, NS
Wang et al. 2017 [67] Rat Naja sputatrix whole venom preconditioning Decreased pro-inflammatory mediators; increased NS
Wang et al. 2018 [68] Rat PLA2 preconditioning Decreased BWC, intraoperative bleeding; increased NS
Xiao et al. 2018 [69] Rat Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-8 (MFGE8) pre-treatment Decreased BWC, apoptotic cells; increased NS
Akyol et al. 2018 [70] Rat Neurotrophin-3 intraoperative Decreased BWC, BBB permeability; increased NS
Chen et al. 2019 [71] Rat Collagen-glycosaminoglycan (CG) matrix post-treatment Decreased ED-1, IBA-1, MPO, TNF-α, IL-6, NF-κB; increased GMCSF, IL-10
Hsu et al. 2018 [72] Rat Collagen-glycosaminoglycan (GC) matrix post-treatment Increased MMP2, MMP9
Zakhary et al. 2019 [41] Rat RO 61-8048 (kynurenine inhibitor) post-treatment Decreased BWC, increased NS