Skip to main content

Table 2 Overview of the studies included in this meta-analysis

From: The prevalence of freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease and in patients with different disease durations and severities

StudyCountrySample sizeQuality scoreIdentification of FOGAge (years)Disease duration (years)H&Y
Margolesky et al [36]United States10219freezing of gait was self-reported68.0 ± 10.05.3 ± 4.81-4
Mckay et al [46]United States6518FOG-Q item 3 > 1 or UPDRS item 14 > 168 ± 107.3 ± 5.61-3
Mancini et al [40]Israel9416new FOG-Q part I = freezer65.4 ± 9.7 for non-freezers; 64.2 ± 8.8 for freezers4.9 ± 2.8 for non-freezers; 7.6 ± 4.4 for freezers2.4 ± 0.5 for non-freezers; 3.2 ± 0.8 for
Djaldetti et al [37]Israel4114UPDRS item 14 > 163.5 ± 9.99.5 ± 3.21-3
Ehgoetz Martens et al [38]Australia22115FOG-Q item 3 ≥ 165.4 ± 9.8 for non-freezers; 70.8 ± 9.4 for transitional freezers; 70.2 ± 10.9 for continuing freezers3.2 ± 4.3 for non-freezers; 6.0 ± 4.1 for transitional freezers; 9.7 ± 7.5 for continuing freezersND
Kader et al [44]Sweden24316FOG-Q item 3 ≥ 170 ± 9.28 (1–43)a3 (2–3) a
Sutter et al [45]United States11116new FOG-Q item 1 > 066.5 ± 1.74.0 (2.0-8.0)a1-4
Forsyth et al [43]Australia8216new FOG-Q66.5 ± 7.67.5 ± 5.72.0 ± 0.7
Ricciardi et al [41]Italy4315new FOG-Q item 1 > 068.0 ± 11.65.3 ± 5.4 for non-freezers; 9.5 ± 5.8 for freezersND
Vervoort et al [42]Belgium7616new FOG-Q or FOG occurrence in the lab60.6 ± 10.06.8 ± 4.62.1 ± 0.5
Shin et al [35]United states14114freezing of gait was self-reported69.7 ± 8.216.34 ± 4.84ND
Allen et al [21]Australia23114freezing of gait was self-reported70.6 ± 8.87.9 ± 5.9ND
Amboni et al [11]Italy59319FOG-Q item 3 ≥ 166.1 ± 9.7 for non-freezers; 67.5 ± 8.7 for freezers6.1 ± 3.8 for non-freezers; 9.8 ± 4.8 for freezers1-5
Forsaa et al [22]Norway23217UPDRS item 14 ≥ 164.9 (28.2-86.0) b8.6 ± 5.71-5
Gazibara et al [23]Serbia30017new FOG-Q item 1 > 061.4 (22–83)b0.5-301-4
Lieberman et al [24]United States21214UPDRS item 14 ≥ 2NDAll patients < 51-5
Lindholm et al [25]Sweden14115FOG-Q item 3 ≥ 168 ± 9.74 ± 3.91-5
Walton et al [26]Australia20315FOG-Q item 3 ≥ 166.77 ± 8.95.1 ± 5.11-3
Bohnen et al [8]United States14314MDS-UPDRS item 3.11 ≥ 165.5 ± 7.46.0 ± 4.32.4 ± 0.5
Ou et al [27]China47416FOG-Q item 3 ≥ 162.09 ± 10.554.77 ± 4.041-5
Perez-Lloret et al [28]French67219UPDRS item 14 ≥ 150.7% patients ≥6850.7% patients > 51-5
Auyeung et al [10]China17117sudden and transient blocks of movement while walking62.2 ± 10.6All patients > 101.5-5
Contreras et al [29]Spain16016FOG-Q item 3 ≥ 172.0 ± 9.58.1 ± 6.42.6 ± 1.0
Garcia-Ruiz et al [30]Spain4515sudden and transient blocks of movement while walking58.5 ± 10.2a follow-up study of new-onset PD
Josiah et al [31]United States91614UPDRS item 14 ≥ 167.1 ± 11.06.6 ± 6.0ND
Coelho et al [32]Spain and Portugal5015ND74.1 ± 7.017.9 ± 6.34-5
Moore et al [9]Israel11816FOG-Q item 3 ≥ 165.8 ± 10.28.5 ± 5.82.7 ± 0.8
Giladi et al [33, 34]United States80015UPDRS item 14 ≥ 161.1 ± 9.52.1 ± 1.31-2
Giladi et al [33, 34]Israel17216feet get glued to the ground was self-reported58.3 ± 13.211.8 ± 5.61-5
  1. H&Y Hoehn and Yahr staging, FOG-Q freezing of gait questionnaire, UPDRS unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale, MDS-UPDRS movement disorder society revised Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, PD Parkinson’s disease, ND no data
  2. amedian (q1-q3)
  3. bmean (range)