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Table 1 The details of the included studies

From: Postoperative incidence of seizure and cerebral infarction in pediatric patients with epileptic type moyamoya disease: a meta-analysis of single rate

n Included studies Age range (years) Follow-up period(years) Preoperative clinical manifestations (except seizure) Interval between onset of clinical symptoms and surgery Surgery modality
1 Sainte-Rose C, et al. (2006) [15] 3.5-16 2.1-5.6 Cerebral ischemia, headache Unknown Indirect (multiple bur hole)
2 Choi JI, et al. (2015) [2] 2-15 2-12 Cerebral ischemia An average of 7.4 months Indirect (EDAS)
3 Nakase H, et al. (1993) [6] 0.4-12 0.5-17.3 No description Within 1 year to more than 3 years Combined (STA-MCA + EMS)
4 Ulrich PT, et al. (2011) [16] 1-18 2-25 Ischemic stroke, mental retardation, headache Unknown Indirect, direct, or combined (EDAS, EMS, STA-MCA + EMS)
5 Caldarelli M, et al. (2001) [17] 0.6-9 1.2-19 Hemiparesis, psychomotor retardation, malformation, fever 2-20 months Indirect (EMS)
6 Ma Y, et al. (2018) [18] 2-18 0.5-7.5 Cerebral ischemia or hemorrhage, perfusion impairment 0.7-113 months Indirect, direct, or combined (EDAS, bypass, burr holes)
7 Yang H, et al. (2019) [19] 3.5-16 0.2-1.2 No description Unknown combined
n Included studies angiographic characteristics Postoperative complications Epileptic type MMD cases Postoperative seizure cases Postoperative ischemic event cases
1 Sainte-Rose C, et al. (2006) [15] Suzuki stage 2-4 Subcutaneous effusions (1 case) 5 2 0
2 Choi JI, et al. (2015) [2] Suzuki stage 2-3 No description 7 1 2
3 Nakase H, et al. (1993) [6] Suzuki stage 1-6 No description 23 4 3
4 Ulrich PT, et al. (2011) [16] Suzuki stage 2-3 No description 15 5 Unknown
5 Caldarelli M, et al. (2001) [17] Stenosis or occlusion of monolateral or bilateral ICA, MCA, or ACA Epidural bleeding (1 case) 5 3 0
6 Ma Y, et al. (2018) [18] Suzuki stage: 1-5 No description 28 7 Unknown
7 Yang H, et al. (2019) [19] Unknown No description 9 1 Unknown
  1. Abbreviations: EDAS encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis, EMS encephalomyosynangiosis, STA–MCA superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery, ICA internal carotid artery, MCA middle cerebral artery, ACA anterior cerebral artery, TIA transient ischemic attack
  2. Suzuki stage [20]: stage 1 no abnormal findings can be observed except for carotid fork stenosis; stage 2 the stenosis has progressed at the carotid fork; the moyamoya vessels can be observed and all the main cerebral arteries are dilated; stage 3 the moyamoya vessels develop on the base of the brain and its constituent vessels are comparatively thick and rough with the anterior or middle cerebral arteries missing; stage 4 the moyamoya vessels become thin with the anterior and middle cerebral arteries missing; stage 5 the moyamoya vessels contract to the base of the brain and even the posterior cerebral arteries disappear; stage 6 the intracranial internal carotid artery is not visualized; the intracerebral vessels are perfused with blood from the external carotid artery and/or vertebral artery.