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Table 1 Review of the 18 cases of ventriculoperitoneal shunt-related intra-abdominal metastasis reported between 1979 and 2020 on PubMed

From: The external metastasis of the central nerve system germ cell tumors: case report and review of the literature

Author Age Sex Histological type Treatment Initial position Metastatic area VP shunt Time to metastasis Initial symptoms Survival after metastasis
F. Lesoin [10] 4 M Pineal tumor Radiotherapy Posterior part of the 3rd ventricle Intracranial and abdominal (mesenteric) Y 12 months Bilateral, symmetrical, cerebellar syndrome, bilateral, papilledema, Parinaud’s syndrome 10 months
F. Lesoin [10] 3 F Pineoblastoma Subtotal resection and radiotherapy Third ventricle Behind the bladder, internal mammary glands, subhepatic, and pulmonary Y 8 months Character disorders, cerebellar syndrome >18 months
F. Lesoin [10] 12 M Pinealoblastoma Subtotal resection and radiotherapy Pineal Pulmonary Y 12 months Static, symmetrical, bilateral, cerebellar syndrome 68 months
Belongia and Jogal [7] 7 M Mixed malignant Chemotherapy N/A Multiple intra-abdominal masses Y 5 months Asymptomatic, incidental finding on spinal imaging 10 months
Murray et al. [11] 13 F Pineal germinoma Resection of mass and chemotherapy Pineal Ascites, pelvic, mass, peritoneal nodules Y 17 months Abdominal distension >34 months
Altundag et al. [1] 23 M Pineal germinoma Chemotherapy Pineal Ascites, pelvic, mass, multiple liver nodules Y 24 months Abdominal distension >36 months
Back et al. [2] 10 M Pineal germinoma Chemoradiotherapy and resection of the mass Pineal Abdominal mass Y 13 months Abdominal pain and distension >4 months
Ung et al. [12] 13 M Pineal germinoma Resection of mass and chemotherapy Pineal Abdominal mass Y 37 months Abdominal pain >24 months
Pallini et al. [13] 15 M Pineal germinoma Subtotal resection and radiotherapy Pineal and 3rd ventricle Pelvic mass, peritoneal nodules Y 2 months Headache, lethargy, limitation, upward gaze, diabetes insipidus 4 months
Kim et al. [8] 36 M Pineal germinoma Chemotherapy Pineal Ascites, peritoneal nodules Y 12 months Abdominal distension, vomiting >6 months
Devkota et al. [5] 12 M Pineal germinoma N/A Pineal Pelvic mass, peritoneal nodules Y 24 months Abdominal pain, distension, vomiting <1 month
Haimovic et al. [6] 27 M Pineal germinoma Radiotherapy Posterior 3rd ventricle right abdominal palpable rectally Y 36 months Bifrontal, headaches, diplopia, nausea, dizziness, hydrocephalus, duration NA
Kun et al. [9] 14 M Germinoma Radiotherapy NA Pelvic mass Y 14 months Abdominal pain, constipation >38 months
Triolo and Schulz [14] 15 M Pineal germinoma N/A Pineal Pelvic abdominal mass, peritoneal and omental nodules Y N/A Constipation, weight loss 21 months
Wood et al. [15] 11 M Pineal germinoma Chemoradiotherapy Pineal Pelvic mass Y 36 months Rectal discomfort >24 months
Wood et al. [15] 13 F Pineal germinoma N/A Pineal Pelvic mass Y 10 months N/A <1 month
Wood et al. [15] 15 M Pineal germinoma Chemotherapy Pineal Fluid collection Y 36 months Abdominal pain distension N/A