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Table 1 Description of epidemiological studies on smoking and meningioma in women included in the meta-analysis

From: A decreased risk of meningioma in women smokers was only observed in American studies rather than studies conducted in other countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Studies Country No. of female cases/controls Smoking rate (%,F+M/F) Type of control Research instrument Information on smoking Variables assessed and adjustment
Case-control studies        
Flint-Richter et al. 2011 [15] Israel 171/196 28.49/23.70 Hospital Face-to-face interview Ever/never, pack-years Adjusted for radiation exposure
Lee et al. 2006 [13] USA 217/248 NA/17.32 Hospital Mailed questionnaires Ever/never, current, past * Adjusted for age, race, menarche, pregnancy, menopause, oral contraceptives, thyroid disorders, and radiation treatment
Phillips et al. 2005 [16] USA 143/286 50.50/48.48 Population Interview Ever/never, pack-years, duration, age at start, amount Adjusted for education.
Hu et al. 1999 [12] China 113/226 35.15/13.86 Hospital Interview Ever/never, pack-years, duration, age at start Adjusted for income, education, occupational exposure to chemicals, and consumption of fruit and vegetables.
Vida et al. 2014 [21] Canada 67/331 23.15/20.04 Population Interview Ever/never, current, pack-years, duration Adjusted for age, sex, education level, and region
Claus et al. 2012 [17] USA 1 049/957 10.82/10.61 Hospital Interview Ever/never, current, past, duration, pack-years Adjusted for race, age, BMI, alcohol use, and education
Cohort studies        
Benson et al. 2008 [14] UK 372/1, 176, 715 NA/20.80 Population Mailed questionnaires Never/past, current * Adjusted for height, body mass index, socioeconomic status, alcohol intake, strenuous exercise, age at first birth, parity, and oral contraceptive use