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Table 1 Review of the localization method of spinal extradural meningeal cysts

From: How to locate the dural defect in a spinal extradural meningeal cyst: a literature review

Localization method Signs Authors
Spinal routine examination Plain radiography: obvious enlargement of intervertebral foramina and interpedicle distance Lee et al., Xu et al.
CT: severe scalloping changes on the posterior edge of the vertebral body Lee et al., Xu et al.
MRI: flow void, dominant cyst laterality in axial view, segment with the largest cyst area in axial MRI, middle segment of the cyst in sagittal MRI Lee et al., Xu et al., Özdemir et al., Lee et al., Paredes et al.
None real-time contrast examination Myelography: narrow enhancement area between the subarachnoid space and the cyst Congia et al., Neo et al.
CT myelography: narrow enhancement area between the subarachnoid space and the cyst, site where the contrast agent first fills the cyst Lee et al., Ball et al., Funao et al., Liu et al., DiSclafani et al., Morizane et al., Tanaka et al.
MRI myelography: flow void Miyamoto et al.
Digital subtraction contrast examination Digital subtraction cystography: site where the contrast agent first fills the subarachnoid space from the cyst; verify and determine the laterality in the frontal view Gu et al.
Two-needle puncture digital subtraction myelography technology: site where the contrast agent first fills the cyst Ying et al.
Digital subtraction myelography: site where the contrast agent first fills the cyst Lee et al.
Special MRI Cine MRI: flow void Neo et al., Funao et al., Morizane et al.
Steady-state image construction interference sequence (CISS) MRI: communication between the subarachnoid space and the cyst Nakagawa et al.
Time-spatial labeling inversion pulse (T-SLIP) MRI: hyperintense signal CSF flow from the subarachnoid space into a hypointense signal cyst Ishibe et al.
Intraoperative method Neuroendoscopy: endoscopic findings revealed a dural fistula Funao et al., Ying et al.
Intraoperative ultrasound: pulsating cerebrospinal fluid inflow; inner wall of the cyst continued to swell and collapse Kanetaka et al., Morizane et al.
Intraoperative sequential dynamic MRI myelography: site with irregular multilobulated morphology Mishra et al.