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Table 1 Clinical features of the VAE cases

From: Could cough be an intraoperative indicator for venous air embolism in deep brain stimulation surgeries?: experiences from a large case series

No. Age Cough Duration Tremor Other complaints Influence Hospitalized
1 63 ++ 5.5 - - None 7
2 68 + 2 + + None 6
3 75 +++ 12 ++ + SO 8
4 73 +++ 9 +++ + DH, SS 11
5 67 + 3.5 + + None 6
6 63 + 2 + - None 7
7 67 ++ 4 + - None 6
8 74 +++ 15 ++ + SO 10
9 63 ++ 8 + - SS 6
10 70 + 4 - - None 5
11 65 + 1.5 + + None 6
12 69 +++ 11 +++ + DH, SS 23
13 62 + 3 + - None 7
14 71 ++ 3 + + SS 7
15 66 +++ 7 +++ + SS 8
16 69 ++ 5.5 ++ - SO 6
  1. Abbreviations: SO slowing the operation, SS surgery suspension, DH difficulty in hemostasis
  2. 1. Assessment of the cough during the surgery: +, mild and transient coughing periods during the surgery; ++, evident but gradually attenuating coughing periods during the surgery; +++, intensive and unremitting coughing periods during the surgery
  3. 2. Assessment of the tremor intensity during the cough: −, no tremor; +, mild tremor with little influence on the surgical site; ++, evident tremor with moderate shaking of the head, obscuring the surgical site; +++, violent whole-body tremor with gross shaking of the head, making it almost impossible to visualize the surgical site clearly
  4. 3. +, having more than one of these symptoms, including tachypnea, chest pain, chest distress and dyspnea; −, no other complaint was reported