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Table 2 Comparison of clinical features among groups divided by cough extent

From: Could cough be an intraoperative indicator for venous air embolism in deep brain stimulation surgeries?: experiences from a large case series

   ALL/Mean +a ++a +++a p value
Number   16 6 5 5 >0.5
Age   67.8 65.8 66.6 71.4 <0.05
Sex       >0.5
Male 9 3 3 3  
Female 7 3 2 2  
Diagnosis       >0.5
Parkinson’s disease 14 5 4 5  
Dystonia 1 1 0 0  
Essential tremor 1 0 1 0  
Side       >0.1
Left 9 4 1 4  
Right 7 2 4 1  
Cough beginning       >0.1
BH 6 3 2 1  
DR 9 2 3 4  
MR 1 1 0 0  
Duration   6.0 2.7 5.2 10.8 <0.01
Tremorb       <0.05
- 2 1 1 0  
+ 8 5 3 0  
++ 3 0 1 2  
+++ 3 0 0 3  
Other complaints       <0.05
- 7 3 4 0  
+ 9 3 1 5  
Influence       <0.01
None 8 6 2 0  
Little influence* 6 0 3 3  
Great influence* 2 0 0 2  
Treatmentc       <0.01
≤3 12 6 5 1  
>3 4 0 0 4  
Hospitalized   8.1 6.2 6.4 12.0 <0.01
  1. Abbreviations: BH cough began with the burr hole placement, DR cough began with the dural incision, MR cough began with the microelectrode recording, *, Little influence on the surgery, leading to slowing of some operations; Great influence on the surgery, sometimes resulting in difficulty in hemostasis, surgery suspension and ICU observation
  2. aGroups were established based on the cough extent during DBS surgery: see Table 1
  3. bAssessment of the tremor intensity during the cough: see Table 1
  4. cTreatment of the coughing period during and after the surgery: ≤3, treatment of less than 3 procedures; >3, treatment of more than 3 procedures