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Table 1 Characteristics of Nine Patients with Dumbbell-Shaped Epidural CM

From: Spinal dumbbell-shaped epidural cavernous hemangioma (CM): report of nine surgical cases and literature review

  Age/Sex Symptom Duration(months) Site Initial Diagnosis MRI findings Radiologic features Intra-op bleeding (ml) Recurrent FU/months MMS
T1WI T2WI Gd CT Foramen Dilation Extension Pre-op Last-FU
1 55/M H/W/U 1 T2–4 Sch Hypo Hyper HO/ob Iso Yes D/Lt 200 No 94 III I
2 58/M H/W/B 24 T3–4 Sch Iso Hyper HO/ob Iso No D/Lt 200 No 94 IV I
3 79/M H/Lp 4 T7–8 CM Iso Hyper HE/ob Iso No Lt 200 Yes 94 II I
4 66/M H/W/U 6 T2–3 Sch Iso Hyper HO/ob Iso No D/Lt 1000 No 52 III I
5 63/M H/W/U 6 T3–4 Sch Iso Hyper HO/ob Iso No V/Rt 100 No 90 III I
6 54/F H/Lp 36 C7-T1 CM Iso Hyper HO/ob Iso No V/Rt 300 Yes 53 I I
7 44/M H/W 1 T7–9 Sch Iso Hyper HO/ob Iso Yes Rt 200 No 29 III I
8 69/F H/W/Cp 12 T5–6 Men Iso Hyper HE/not ob Iso No D/Rt 800 No 66 IV III
9 34/F Ap 12 C3–4 Sch Iso Hyper HE/ob Iso Yes Lt 600 No 67 I II
  1. Abbreviations: Age/Sex: M Male, F: Female, Symptom: H: Hypoesthesia, W: Leg Weakness, U Urinary retention, B Bowel disorders, Lp Leg pain, Ap Arm pain, Cp Chest pain, Initial Diagnosis: CM Cavernous malformation, Sch Schwannoma, Men Meningioma, MRI: Iso: Isointense, Hype Hyperintense, Hyp Hypointense, HE Heterogeneous-enhanced, HO Homogeneous-enhanced,ob: obvious,D Dorsal,V Ventral,Rt Right, Lt Left; Pre-op Preoperative, FU Follow-up