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Table 1 Summary of patient-specific and treatment-related characteristics and screw-specific accuracy

From: Accuracy of pedicle screw placement in the thoracic and lumbosacral spines using O-arm-based navigation versus conventional freehand technique

Variables* Total (n = 60) Navigation group (n = 35) Freehand group (n = 25) p value (two-tailed)
Patient-specific characteristics
 Age, years 54.07 (17.93) 54.80 (17.63) 53.04 (18.66) 0.711
 Sex, male/female 30/30 17/18 13/12 0.793
 Body mass index, kg/m2 24.46 (3.98) 24.73 (3.27) 24.08 (4.85) 0.559
 Diagnosis
  Tumor (%) 29 (48.33) 15 (42.86) 14 (56.00) 0.45
  Degenerative disease (%) 26 (43.33) 16 (45.71) 10 (40.00)  
  Trauma (%) 5 (8.33) 4 (11.43) 1 (4.00)  
Treatment-related characteristics
 No. of screws 341 191 150  
 Distribution of screws
  Thoracic (%) 173 (50.73) 86 (45.03) 87 (58.00) 0.017
  Lumbosacral (%) 168 (49.27) 105 (54.97) 63 (42.00)  
 Surgical time/screw, min 18.83 (8.15) 21.36 (8.85) 15.28 (5.47) 0.002
 Blood loss, ml 300 (375) 300 (300) 400 (450) 0.652
 Length of postoperative hospital stay, days 16.95 (8.73) 16.71 (6.99) 17.28 (10.87) 0.807
 Radiation dose/screw, mSv 1.49 (1.12) 1.69 (1.62) 1.25 (1.15) 0.652
Screw-specific accuracy
 Gertzbein-Robbins scale grade, %
  A and B (%) 318 (93.25) 183 (95.81) 135 (90.00) 0.034
  C, D, and E (%) 23 (6.74) 8 (4.19) 15 (10.00)  
 Screw deviation
  Cranial (%) 5 (10.42) 3 (12.50) 2 (8.33) 0.249
  Caudal (%) 9 (18.75) 7 (29.17) 2 (8.33)  
  Medial (%) 18 (37.50) 7 (29.17) 11 (45.83)  
  Lateral (%) 16 (33.33) 7 (29.17) 9 (37.50)  
  1. *Comparison between navigation and freehand groups. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant