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Table 1 Patient information

From: Treatment of direct carotid-cavernous fistula with Willis covered stent with midterm follow-up

Patient no. Sex (F/M) Years Presentation Duration Recurrent (yes/no) Operation process Immediate angiographic result Follow-up result
1 F 25 Chemosis 7 days No One stent Patent, no endoleak No symptom. Patent, no stenosis
2 M 28 Chemosis/exophthalmos/bruit/ocular movement disorder 5 days No One stent, repeated dilation, persistent endoleak, second stent, endoleak, occlude the ICA with balloons ICA occlusion Decreased visual acuity. No DSA follow-up
3 M 45 Chemosis 12 days No Could not deliver the stent to the fistula, occlude the ICA with balloons ICA occlusion No symptom. No DSA follow-up
4 M 21 Chemosis/exophthalmos/bruit/ocular movement disorder 6 days No One stent, endoleak, seal the fistula with coils Patent, no endoleak Slight ocular movement disorder. Patent, DSA follow-up in a local hospital.
5 M 19 Chemosis/exophthalmos/bruit 14 days No One stent Patent, no endoleak No symptom. Patent, no stenosis
6 F 29 Chemosis/exophthalmos 3 days No One stent Patent, no endoleak No symptom. Patent, no stenosis
7 F 18 Chemosis/exophthalmos/bruit/ocular movement disorder 4 days No One stent Patent, no endoleak No symptom. Patent, no stenosis
8 M 31 Chemosis/bruit 2 months Yes One stent Patent, no endoleak Decreased visual acuity. Refuse DSA follow-up
9 M 29 Chemosis 6 months Yes One stent Patent, no endoleak No symptom. Patent, no stenosis
10 M 35 Chemosis/exophthalmos 1.5 months No One stent, repeated dilation Patent, slight endoleak No symptom. Patent, slight stenosis, no endoleak
  1. F, female; M, Male; ICA, internal carotid artery; DSA, digital subtraction angiography