Globally, severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been the principal cause of mortality among individuals aged 45 and below. The incidence of road traffic accidents in Malaysia is one of the highest in the world with thousands of victims sustaining severe disabilities. The aim of this study is to determine the association between leucocytosis and extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) scores as well the relationship of other factors and the outcomes of severe TBI.
This was a retrospective observational study. A total of 44 consecutive patients who were admitted to Sarawak General Hospital from January 1, 2018, to September 30, 2018, with severe TBI were included. Data were collected from discharge summaries and hospital medical records. Chi-square and t test were used. SPSS was employed.
Of a total of 44 patients with severe TBI, 18 patients (41%) died during the same admission. The mean age of patients was 37.1 years with 93.2% of affected patients being male. 56.9% of patients presented with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 6 and less. A large percentage (86.3%) were discharged with a GOSE of less than 7. Older age and low admission GCS (6 and less) were significantly associated with poor GOSE scores on discharge and after 6 months (p < 0.05) on multivariate analysis. Leucocytosis on admission was also associated with poor outcomes where patients with higher total white counts on presentation attaining lower GOSE scores (p < 0.05).
We concluded that leucocytosis was significantly associated with poor outcomes in severe TBI patients in addition to other factors such as advanced age and poor GCS on arrival.